THE NEW WORLD (1/20/06)
Myths Abound in "The New World"
By Cathy Schultz
It would be logical to assume that Terrence Malick's The New
World, the latest retelling of the Pocahontas-John Smith story,
would share little in common with Disney's 1995 animated feature,
Pocahontas. Malick, after all, is a legendary auteur, while
Disney is, well, Disney.
Logical, perhaps, but wrong. For though stylistically the films
are worlds apart, there are uncomfortable similarities in the romanticized
history each offers.
Take the costume notions, for one. In both movies, Pocahontas sports
a cute, midriff-baring little number, complete with strategic slits
to show off her toned thighs. Sexy? Quite. But historical? Um, no.
And while Malick's film doesn't have a chatty Grandmother Willow
and a cuddly raccoon buddy, Pocahontas still cavorts. A lot. In
fact, according to these films, Pocahontas apparently had little
else to do than gambol around with John Smith, teaching him to appreciate
Here are other ways The New World romanticizes early America
Q. Was John Smith such a pensive, introspective chap?
A. Hardly. The real John Smith was an opinionated, forceful soldier,
who is credited with saving the Jamestown settlement by cracking
down on lazy settlers who would rather hunt for gold than grow food.
Smith also had a wide self-promoting streak. He penned thrilling
adventure stories of his exploits, with himself as the swashbuckling
hero. It worked, though. We still know his name today, while contemporaries
like Christopher Newport (who?) are forgotten.
Q. In the film, the Indians are said to "lack guile, treachery,
or greed." Is that true?
A. Far too romanticized. The movie depicts the Indians living in
harmony with nature and one another. They're peaceful, except when
the English goad them. And they all do lots of playing and dancing.
In reality, Powhatan, Pocahontas's father was an astute and tough
chief, who ruled by conquest over the surrounding tribes. Politically
savvy and fierce in battle, his people were far from the innocent,
childlike creatures we see in the film.
Nor were they primitive environmentalists. Indians worked the earth
the same way the English did, only with different tools. They farmed,
felled trees, reshaped the land around them. And rather than cavorting
all day, everyone in the tribe worked. Hard.
Q. How did Smith get along with the Indians?
A. It was a complex relationship. On the one hand, Smith admired
Powhatan, and may even have been ritually adopted into his tribe.
And since the English were greatly outnumbered, and starving to
boot, Smith had no choice but to negotiate with the tribes for food.
But Smith could be sneaky, promising muskets for food, for example,
with no real intention of providing them. And his own letters proposed
a dire fate for the natives, suggesting that the best way to treat
Indians was to force them to do "all matter of drudgery worke
[sic] and slavery."
Q. Did Pocahontas really save John Smith when her tribe captured
A. Probably not. The famous tale of Smith's capture by Powhatan
and his subsequent release was one Smith told many times. But interestingly,
he never added the bit about Pocahontas's "rescue" until
1624, seventeen years after it purportedly occurred, and years after
Pocahontas herself died.
Smith also liked to exaggerate. It's suspicious, for instance,
that apparently Pocahontas wasn't the only beautiful woman to save
Smith from almost certain death. According to his writings, a Turkish
noblewoman, a Cossack chieftain's wife, and a lovely Frenchwoman
(among others) also rescued him during his various globe-trotting
adventures. Most of them, of course, then fell madly in love with
Q. So Pocahontas and John Smith didn't fall in love? Say it
A. One big obstacle to the Romeo and Juliet love story presented
by Malick is that when they met, Smith was about twenty-seven, and
Pocahontas probably only eleven.
But she was a precocious child by all accounts, and she and Smith
did build a friendship, despite the age difference, and taught one
another their languages. But their great love affair almost certainly
didn't happen. Two years after they met, John Smith was headed back
to England, and Pocahontas was married to Kocoom, an Indian who
died soon after.
Q. Was Pocahontas kicked out of her tribe for helping the English?
A. Never occurred. She did end up living in Jamestown, though. But
only because she had been kidnapped at fifteen by the English, and
was held there as a royal hostage.
Her captors allowed her much freedom, however. And it was in Jamestown
that she met and married John Rolfe. And as the film shows, she
traveled with him to London, and was feted by the King as a princess.
Thus Pocahontas cast her lot with the English. The sources suggest
that she did love Rolfe. But her marriage was also designed to forge
an alliance, and foster a peace between her people and her husband's.
It worked, at least in her lifetime.
Q. Where to find more information about her?
A. Try Camilla Townsend's wonderful Pocahontas and the Powhatan
By Cathy Schultz, Ph.D.